APOLLO 14 MISSION, FEBRUARY 1971
                TRANSCRIPTIONS FROM BBC BROADCASTS


     A:    Arthur Garret     )
     C:    Colin R. ['ri;&k]   )  Apollo Studio BBC London
     L:    Larry Hotson      )
     
     D:    Douglas Stuart    )  
     N:    Colin Nichols      )  Newsroom BBC London
     S:    Douglas Smith     )  
     
     
     R:    Reginald Turnill  )  BBC Houston
     AA:                     )  Astronauts and/or Houston
     M:    Dale Miles        )  United States Space Agency
     AC:                     )  American commentator
     X:    ???               )  Speaker unknown


                              * * *


APOLLO-14,  5.2.71, 10.00-10.30

BFBS 5.2.71, 10.00-10.30 (FM)


(3) LANDING ON THE MOON

AA:  ...

C:   (4) He is now orbiting around sixty miles above the moon,
the 14th revolution in fact since they arrived in the vicinity of
the moon. (5) Meanwhile, Shepard and Mitchell are just checking
out the final details for the descent, before that happens. (6)
But they've had one problem with a very important piece of
equipment on board the lunar module. (7) Arthur, can you tell us
about that? 

A:   (8) Yes. (9) Well, this is the so-called abort mode. (10)
They've got a device by which they can abort the landing and
bring the LM, the lunar module, actually back to the command
module automatically. (11) Now the computer during the 12th
revolution was doing some other work, actually working out some
navigation, when suddenly it reported that the abort switch had
been pressed. (12) Well, of course it hadn't. (13) And
fortunately the computer was in this mode. (14) If it'd been
controlling engines at that moment, the thing would have aborted.
(15) Well, they started to bang the switch and they found if they
banged the switch - you know the old story: if it doesn't work,
give it a bang - if they banged the switch, the thing was all
right. (16) But obviously this couldn't go on, so they have
altered the program on the computer - MIT had been at work on
this - so that the computer will no longer respond, even though
the abort comes up, unless they do it in a special way. (17) This
is by the way what they have described from Houston as "an
electronic spook". (18) Well, fortunately they know about it, it
shouldn't cause any trouble whatsoever. (19) And now we are all
ready for them to start the powered descent.  

C:   (20) I wonder whether this means it might be more difficult
for them to abort if they had to, if they did get into trouble.

A:   (21) Well, no. (22) Because they have still left themselves
the old belts-and-braces. (23) They've got a button that they can
press, which will abort them. (24) But the automatic abort has
been put out of operation. (25) So, if something does go wrong,
they can get out of it.

C:   (26) Well, let's listen to them now because they're supposed
to be setting off down towards the moon in a coup -, in about a
minute and a half, if it's all going to time, arriving in the Fra
Mauro Region at sixteen minutes past ten. (27) So let's listen
into NASA now.

[0205 planned descent - 00:01:30]

AA: ...

C:  (28) They should perhaps be counting down, but I haven't
heard any sign of -

AA:  ... 

A:   (29) They've got one minute to go.  

[0205 planned descent - 00:01]

AA:  ...

A:   (30) They're running about thirty seconds late. (31) That's
fairly normal.

AA: (32) Okay. 

(33) They sound very confident, don't they?

AA:  ...

A:   (34) No problems at all, by the sound of it.

AA:  ...

AA: (35) Four, three, two, one, zero.

[0205 planned descent + 00:00:30]

AA:  ...

A:   (36) That sounds excellent, it went off all right.

AA:  ...

C:   (37) Alan Shepard and Ed Mitchell talking to each other just
like pilots on board of an ordinary aircraft as pilot and captain
and first officer.

AA:  ...

AA: (39) Okay, coming down.

AA:  ...

C:   (40) Just a word of explanation what all this chat means.
(41) They've now passed the point where they put the throttle up
to maximum thrust on the descent engine to slow them down, drag
them down out of their orbit, and put them on the right sort of
glide path towards the touchdown point.

AA:  ...

C:   (42) At this point they can't see the moon, they're looking
up at the stars, they are in fact looking at the conste -
constellation Scorpio, the brightest star in that Antares, which
is the reason that the lunar module is called "Antares".

AA:  ...

C:   (43) They're now at about thirty thousand feet up, they've
lost a lot of speed, they've taken off at about two thousand
miles an hour, still continuing gradually the slowdown as they
approach the landing site with about four minutes to go, five
minutes to go until touchdown.  

[0205 10:13]

AA:  ...

A:   (44) This is a slightly more difficult landing than many, of
course, because they've got ridges several hundred feet high
radiating away from this area, and they got to do a little bit of
careful manoeuvring not to land on the side of a ridge. (45) They
should have about three minutes to go.

[0205 10:15]

AA:  ...

AA: (46) And we're on descent fuel two. ...

C:   (47) They've throttled down now and very soon they'll be
going down almost vertically for the final couple of thousand
feet to the surface of the moon.

AA:  ...

C:   (48) They're at fifteen thousand feet at this moment.

AA:  ...

AA: (49) Ten seconds to go.

AA:  ...

C:   (50) They've just spotted Cone Crater over to the right,
which is the crater to hope - to which they hope to make a trip
during their second excursion.

AA:  ...

A:   (51) They're now at three thousand feet and it looks as
though they've seen the Cone Crater on the right, they're exactly
on course for their landing point.

AA:  ...

AA: (52) 500 feet ...  (53) The fuel is good ...

AA:  ...

AA: (54) 200 feet ...  (55) that looks good  ...  (56) fuel looks
great ... (57) 170 feet ... (58) 50 feet down ... (59) 3 feet per
second ... (60) 40 feet, 3 feet per second, looking great, 20
feet, 10, 3 feet per second, contact, Al. (63) We're on the
surface. ... (64) Roger, Antares. ... (65) That was a beautiful -

[0205 10:18]

A:   (66) Well, it looks as though they're down perfectly, and it
looks from the map as though they're down exactly where they
tried to land. (67) By the way, Triplet that they are talking
about is a point on the moon, and their approach trajectory came
in over Triplet, and they should have landed just a little bit to
the side of Triplet, so it looks as though they're exactly where
they should be.

AA:  ...

C:   (68) Yes, we heard them saying that they were passing just
over north Triplet, which is the northern-most of the three
craters that go to make up this formation, it's the one they were
looking out for on the way down, they had to land somewhere
between that one and a couple of craters known as Doublet, which
is just a little further on, and it seems that they're bang
between those two formations, which is precisely where they
wanted to be.

A:   (69) And if you want to know just where they are, if you
look at the moon, take the centre point of the moon, they're just
a little bit left of the centre.

AA:  ...

C:   (70) They're now checking all the systems on board the lunar
module, making sure, first thing they do when they get down, they
have to make sure that everything is well inside the spacecraft,
that there is no damage, no leaks.

AA:  ...

A:   (71) Well, it looks, Colin, as though this landing just
couldn't have been better. (72) Spot on target, they landed at
just about the right speed, so far everything seems to have gone
absolutely perfectly. (73) Now they've got about five hours
before the actual moon walk starts.

AA:  ...

C:   (74) Well, they seem to be sitting on a slight slope, but
obviously the spacecraft's quite stable.

A:   (75) It might be worth mentioning something about this Fra
Mauro formation, it's a blanket of debris, which some of it's
come up as much as a hundred miles from below the moon. (76) And
this is the particular interest in going to this area because
here they expect to find some of the oldest rocks which are in
existence  anywhere in our solar system. (77) It's all in the
Imbrium Basin, this is the Sea of Rains, Mare Imbrium, which is
approximately the size of France. (78) And they've got these
ridges several hundred feet high radiating from this basin,
separated by valleys. (79) Now they're very interested in going
to a curious cavity known as Cone Crater, and on the second walk
they're going there. (80) This looks as though it was formed by a
giant drill, it's a thousand feet across and a hundred and fifty
feet deep. (81) And there are blocks of the original material as
big as motor cars, scattered all the way round here, so this Cone
Crater is really something to see. (82) Now Shepard and Mitchell
plan when they start their walk, to walk up the gently sloping
outer wall, peer down inside, take photos, chip off samples,
these oldest rocks on the moon. (83) And then these'll be brought
home and they'll be able to be dated in the laboratory, and they
should give us the age of the moon, which will probably mean the
age of the earth as well.

C:   (84) So there'll be a certain amount of mountaineering
involved in this moon walk, for the first time they'll have to
climb several hundred feet to get up to the rim of a crater and
look down into it. (85) It's going to be very exciting when it
comes.    

AA:  ...

C:   (86) That was a very businesslike landing, wasn't it? (87)
As you'll expect from this crew, Arthur, they, there was no fuss,
and - I haven't heard any signs of jubilation from them,
particularly since they got down, compared with previous crews.

A:   (88) I think they're incredibly laconic about this, it was
rather like talk-down of an ordinary aircraft at London airport,
it seemed just as simple as this. (89) Quite remarkable really.

C:   (90) I think the yippee that we did hear at one stage was
probably from Mission Control.

A:   (91) I think they get a bit more jubilant than actually in
the crew.

AA:  ...

A:   (92) Well, and what is going to happen now is that it's
nearly five hours before the walk starts. (93) I mean if you want
the exact times: they're going to start depressurizing the actual
lunar module at about ten minutes to three. (94) And then the
walk proper will begin at ten minutes past when Shepard will step
out, and Mitchell will come out at thirty seven minutes past
three. (95) They've got the thing really timed like that. (96)
Now they got nearly five hours. (97) During this time they're
going to do a complete checkover, they're going to have a rest,
they're going to be all ready for the first EVA. (98) Now, of
course, there's one difference in this EVA, that's electr- extra
vehicular activity in their jargon, but they're going to have a
vehicle. (99) What they call the MET, or Modularized Equipment
Transporter. (100) This is a curious little truck, it's about
seven feet long and three feet wide and nearly three feet high
with a couple of wheels with rubber tyres filled with nitrogen in
this case. (101) And they'll be able to carry something like a
hundred and forty pounds of the material on this, hundred and
forty earth pounds that is, because, of course, remember things
don't weigh quite as much on the moon, about one sixth. (102) And
with this they hope to be able to collect much more material than
they've been able to in the past, they're particularly interested
in this material, as I said, because this is probably the oldest
material on the moon.

[0205 planned first walk - 05:00:00]

C:   (103) We just heard, Arthur, that they go for stay, which
may sound something of a contradiction in terms, but it means
that the initial checks of the spacecraft have indicated that
it's safe for them to stay there for the duration. (104) I think
thirty-three hours is the planned stay time during which they'll
be outside the spacecraft, if all goes well, for a total of up to
ten hours. (105) This is a long and arduous time for them,
they've got lots of work to do, it's all been planned out to the
last second to extract the maximum scientific benefit from the
experiments they set up, the rocks that they pick up, and as they
go around they'll document the exact position of where the rock
was found, they'll take photographs of it, and they'll describe
everything they see to Mission Control. (106) Scientists at
Houston regard this as very important, the astronauts' eye view
of the moon as seen from, in Shepard's case, five feet eleven
inches up. (107) So it's going to be something well worth staying
with and watching, I think, particularly the second moon walk.
(108) This is what they must be looking forward to, tomorrow's
walk when they go up to Cone Crater, very exciting expedition for
them. 

A:   (109) I think another interesting thing about this
particular mission is that they're going to do what they call
active seismic experiments. (110) They got what are known as
thumpers. (111) These are in fact little bombs, and one set is
going to be fired, after the crewmen come home, from a little
mortar that they're going to leave behind, and the others they're
actually going to fire on their way back from one of their walks.
(112) These little bombs, which weigh about a pound each, will be
fired and then geophones, they're little detectors, will pick up
the waves from them. (113) This is all part of the story to find
out more about the structure of the moon. (114) Of course, you
may remember that on one of the earlier missions they dropped the
LM Module back on the moon as expected and the moon rang for
minutes on end when the whole thing seemed to shake. (115) Well,
this not only shook the moon, it shook all the seismographic
people, the people who're interested in earthquakes, because they
just didn't understand this, to a very large extent [garbled]
falling over back was to try and explain it ever since. (116) So
one of the things they're going to do on this mission is really
what the oil boys normally do to find oil. (117) They're going to
fire these charges, pick up the waves, record them, send the
information back, so that we can learn more about the structure
of the moon. (118) This is really probably the most exciting new
experiment that is going to be done. (119) They're going to do
all the old experiments again, they're going to leave another
seismic device there, so that eventually they will have three of
them. (120) They're going to leave another mirror to reflect
laser signals. (121) This is a quite fantastically accurate
experiment, where they shoot out light from the earth, send it up
to the moon, reflect it back, and they can measure the distance
from the earth to the moon with an accuracy of six inches. (122)
And the plan is, to have three of these laser reflectors, this
will be the second one, so that they will be able to get precise
knowledge of the moon's movements, because the moon wobbles a
little bit, and this is of very great interest to selenologists.
(123) At the moment NASA are not talking at all, it's absolutely
quiet, you're not missing anything whatsoever. (124) As Colin was
saying they're going to take a lot of photographs, going to bring
back a lot of samples, well, we'll be leaving you in a moment,
but just let's listen to NASA for a moment.

AA:  ...

A:   (125) Well, that's all for the moment, we will be updating
you from time to time, and of course, we will be back live for
the lunar walk at three o'clock. (126) And now Colin R. and I in
the Apollo Studio will be leaving you and this is all from the
Apollo Studio for the time being. 

[0205 10:30]


                                 * * *


APOLLO-14,  5.2.71, 15.00-

BFBS  5.2.71, 15.00  (FM)

(129) FIRST MOON WALK

[0205 15:00]

A:   ... (130) as you heard we are running twenty minutes late on
the moon walk. (131) Ten minutes of this was because they spent
too long over their meal, and another ten minutes because they
had a little bit of trouble with the life support system which
they'd been checking. (132) Well, we're going to give you this
live when it comes, but now let's have a quick update.

[0205 planned first walk - 00:20:00]

A:   (133) The night passed quietly with only very minor
incidents, so one of Ed Mitchell's medical sensors didn't work,
but they got that right. (134) A battery went down, but they got
reserves, and the elliptical orbit round the moon wasn't exactly
right, but it was within a mile or two. (135) So we all waited
for the first bit of real drama, the undocking. (136) After the
docking-trouble when they turned the lunar module round in flight
there was just a chance that something might go wrong. (137) So
we bated our breaths and listened at ten to six this morning.

AA:  ...

A:   (138) So that went absolutely perfectly. (139) We were just
relaxing when an odd thing happened. (140) During the twelfth
orbit round the moon, Houston Control found an abort signal on
the computer. (141) Now if the computer had been controlling the
engines at that time that would have been the end of the moon
landing as the computer would automatically have aborted the
mission and brought the lunar module Antares back to join the
command module Kitty Hawk. (142) But fortunately the computer was
doing something else at the time, and Houston were able to
squelch it, so that if another abort signal came up it wouldn't
do anything. (143) Tests by Al Shepard and Ed Mitchell seemed to
show that the trouble was in the actual abort button. (144) The
standard engineering trick of giving it a bang seemed to put it
right temporarily. (145) Houston by the way described it as an
electronic spook. (146) So that went all right. (147) And at five
past ten the tricky manoeuvre of descending on to the moon
finished.

AA:  ...

A:   (148) And beautiful it was. (149) They actually landed at
ten eighteen. (150) The astronauts sounded cool, and in fact
they  were  cool. (151) Al Shepard's heart beats were in the 80s,
most of the time, not much above average, and I suspect slower
than ours who were listening to it all. (152) Then came a waiting
period. (153) Al Shepard described what it all looks like.  

AA: (154) The skyline is quite undulating, there is a large hole,
depressure, to our right, ... that is to the north of it, er,
which forms another bowl ... there are several ... and I can see
several ... rolling hills up perhaps 35 to 40 feet in height, er,
obviously very, very old craters that are almost, er, almost a
different thing now, er, between myself and the skyline of the
north ... (159) It just looks like a series of low hills from
this vantage point. ...

A:   (160) Well, now we'll listen for a moment to Houston Control
talking to Antares and trying to sort out this communication
problem with the life support system.

AA:  ... 

(161) Well, they don't seem to be sorting it out right at the
moment. (162) Well, we'll be back as soon as the action starts.
(163) And now that's all from the Apollo studio.

[(164) Announcer: Well, we shall be going back to the Apollo
Studio as soon as there is some more news, but for the moment I
can play us some music on records. ...]



A:   ... (165) board system communications between them, that the
two astronauts would be using as soon as they walked on the moon.
(166) Now, we've just heard from Houston that they have cleared
the trouble up. (167) But it does mean that everything is running
about fifty minutes late. (168) So our estimated time for Al
Shepard to put his first foot on the moon now is at four o'clock.
(169) Well, of course, we'll be back before they start the moon
walk to cover it live for you. (170) And that's all for the
moment from the Apollo Studio.

[(171) Announcer: Well, we shall be keeping you in touch during
the moon walk during our programme this afternoon ... (172) 26
and a half minutes past three ...]

[0205 15:26:30]



C:   ... (173) space craft. (174) At the top of the nine steps
that lead down to the Sea of Rains. (175) This mission is
becoming known as the better-late-than-never mission after the
delay of launch, now this considerable delay with the first lunar
walk. (176) Let's listen to how they're getting on the ladder
down from the lunar module.

AA: (177) Whoops

C:   (178) What's happening at this stage is that Mitchell is
helping Shepard to back out down through the hatch onto the ledge
and then from there down the steps.

AA:  ...

C:   (179) They seem to be having trouble at getting hooked up.
(180) It's a very bulky suit they're wearing now, fully
pressurized, and with this large portable life support system,
with this -

AA:  ...  

C:   (181) The portable life support system on their back with
oxygen, emergency oxygen perched system on top of that and on top
of that the antenna sticking out which, with which they can
communicate with each other and communicate with earth.

AA:  ...

A:   (182) Very easy to get hooked up.

AA:  ...

C:   (183) I should think, Arthur, they can do without another
hold-up at this stage, can't they?

A:   (184) I should think they're only raring to go and get down
on the moon after all this messing about, because they should
have been there over three quarters of an hour ago, and it's of
course setting the whole schedule back all the way. (185) And of
course they got a lot of things to do when they get on the moon,
a whole series of experiments, many of them that have never been
done before on previous missions.

A:   (186) Nothing much seems to be happening at the moment.

C:   (187) They were fifteen minutes behind the time line, when
they finally sorted out that communications problem. (188) The
switch was in the right position, everything was in the right
position, then they discovered that by moving one of the switches
-

AA:  (190) Shepard will be throwing the equipment conveyor belt
... (191) by the fact that the sky is completely black.

A:   (192) The point here, of course, is that when you're in the
moon shadow which is absolutely as black as inside of a cow.

C:   (193) That's because there is no air, of course, to refract
the [garbled] -

AA:  ...

C:   (194) Shepard now pulling on a lanyard to open the cupboard
in the side of the LM -

AA:  ...

C:   (195) which contains the TV camera.

A:   (196) This is the so-called MESA, in which they've got, of
course, a whole lot of things stacked that they're going to be
using.

AA:  ...

C:   (197) Modularized Equipment Stowage Assembly

AA:  ...

A:   (198) They got a whole -

AA: ... (199) Stepping down the ladder. ...

A:   (200) And now we can listen to them actually landing.

AA: ... (201) The MESA has been deployed. (202) Okay, Al,
beautiful, we can see you coming down the ladder right now, looks
like you're [garbled] on the bottom step. (203) And on the
surface.  ... (204) Okay, you're right. (205) Al is on the
surface. (206) And it's been a long way, but we're here.

[0205 15:54] 

[0205 planned first walk + 00:44:00]


C:   (207) So he clearly thinks: better late than never, too.

AA: (208) Here I can see the recently ... (209) on a slope, the
landing gear ... (210) And moving around and getting familiar.
(211) Getting familiar with the surface.

A:   (212) One of the things -

AA:  (214) is extremely soft ... (215) a small depression. ...
(216) Okay, we'll move on over. ... (217) I'll take a look at Fra
Mauro, I'll take a look at Cone Crater, I should say. ... (218)
and it's a very impressive sight ...

C:   (219) So that's the permission for Mitchell now to start
out.

AA: ... (220) I'm continuing: We can see the boulders on the rim,
it looks as though we have a good travelling route up to the top
of Cone. (221) I can see Cone ridge going along to the north ...

A:   (222) That's the Cone Crater half a mile away that they'll
be going to on the second walk.

C:   (223) At this time Shepard's just familiarizing himself -

AA:  ...

C:   (224) Getting the feel of being only one sixth his normal
weight, moving around in that bulky suit.

A:   (225) This is a very important thing to do because it can be
quite dangerous if they fall over, they've got to get used to
this new sort of walking. (226) Because none of these have been
there before. (227) And this is one thing you can't simulate
properly.

C:   (228) In fact neither of these men has done any extra
vehicular activity at all, in space - 

AA:  ...

(einige Sekunden Pause beim Umdrehen der Cassette).

AA:  ... (230) going over to remove ... (231) blanket

A:   (232) A little unexpected that they've got the soft soil
there, I think, you mentioned. 

C:   (233) Yes, it seems to have sunk in so that the foot pads
are covered, which hasn't happened before. 

AA:   ... (234) Mitchell coming out now.

C:   (235) What they've got to be careful not to do this time is
what they did on Apollo 12, and that is that they pointed their
television camera at the sun, twice in fact, and this damaged the
tube, but it was recovering just when Al Bean decided to give it
a bit of your impact technology, Arthur, by hitting it with a
hammer, which put pain to it completely.    

A:   (236) This camera, as a matter of fact, has got a safety
device built in, that if they do point it at the sun -

AA:  ...

A:   (237) MET stands for Modularized Equipment Transporter which
is NASA's way of talking about a little truck.

AA:  ...

C:   (238) Mitchell on his way down the steps, quite quickly.

AA:  ...

C:   (239) Looks as if he's going back up again, he's obviously
enjoying jumping up and down.

AA:  ...

A:   (240) There's a long jump from the last step.

AA: ... (241) That's great.

A:   (242) He has made his landing.

[0205 16:03]


C:   (243) It looks as if these two men are really going to enjoy
their two moon walks.

AA: ... (244) He's releasing it now.

C:   (245) On this -

AA: (246) Okay Houston, Ed is finally pulling the MESA.

C:   (247) And they'll now have about four hours on the surface
of the moon, four to five hours on this first moon walk, a
similar time tomorrow. (248) And with them both safely on the
surface of the moon, this is Colin R [garbled] with Arthur Garret
in the Apollo Studio, that's all from us for now.

[0205 end of first walk - 04:40:00]

[(249) Announcer: Well, we shall keep you in touch with the
latest developments from the moon during the day here on Radio
II. (250) Now very much back on earth. (251) Here's a gale
warning ...]



A:   ... (252) back in the Apollo Studio. (253) Well, the two
astronauts stepped on the moon, starting at just about five
minutes to four, so they are running forty-five minutes late.
(254) They have been unstowing the stuff from the MESA, that's
the stowage unit, and one of the things they've got there, of
course, is what they call the MET, the Modularized Equipment
Transporter. (255) This is the little truck which is about seven
feet long and about three feet wide and about three feet high,
that they're are actually going to use to collect samples and to
walk round the moon and tow behind them. (256) They got a whole
series of experiments, many of them are the type of things that
have been done before like setting up laser reflectors and so on
and so on. (257) But one completely new thing they will be doing
are what are known as the thumpers. (258) These are firstly a
mortar which will fire four rounds, as will be done after the
astronauts leave the moon, and is a curious thing, looking rather
like a sort of stick with four shells in it, though can be fired
by radio.

C:   (259) There's some quite interesting action going on at the
moment, Arthur, we can see in fact the very first colour
television transmission from the moon shows us what's going on,
direct from Apollo 14, and we can see Alan Shepard, I think it
is, at the moment going through the business of doing what you
were just describing unloading the equipment bay. (260) In a
moment they'll be setting up the S-band antenna, the aerial for
improved transmission to earth. (261) They look, the astronauts
look very white indeed in their shining bright suits in this
powerful sunlight falling on them.

A:   (262) What they're doing at the moment, of course, is taking
the first so-called contingency sample. (263) The first thing
they do whenever they step out is to get a bit of rock, so that,
if for any reason they have to stop the mission, abort it, they
do at least bring something home. (264) Of course, they'll be
bringing considerably more rock this time, thanks very largely to
having this truck, and they'll also be taking core samples,
they'll be knocking little tubes into the moon, and taking up
little bits of rock this way from underneath the surface.

AA:  ...

C:   (265) The lunar module is tilted somewhat, it's, they
reckon, at an angle of about eight degrees the surface there,
their local horizontal. (266) I wonder whether this is going to
make it more difficult for them to get around, having a slight
slope to contend with, Arthur, what do you think?

A:   (267) It shouldn't worry them too much there, but the major
problem of course, is getting off again. (268) I think, the
critical angle is about ten degrees. (269) So they're inside
that. (270) If they tip more than this, then they can't lift the
thing off, and then they really have had it. (271) But all seems
to be well there, and nobody's worried about this one.

AA: ... (272) Okay, I'm confirming that I'm in dig ...

A:   (273) And that is a position that he's got [garbled] to
[garbled] which he is digging out this contingency sample.

AA:  ...

A:   (274) They had, in fact, taken a whole series of little bags
this time, that they're going to collect their samples in. (275)
And another thing known as a Special Environmental Container.
(276) These are rather clever things. (277) You see, there's a
hard vacuum on the moon, and they 're well to put things into
this in the vacuum and then seal it. (278) So they will bring it
home and it won't be contaminated by the earth's atmosphere.

AA:  ...

C:   (279) They're just sorting out the exposure on the camera to
get the best possible picture.

AA:  ...

C:   (280) The camera is being set up just about fifty feet north
of where Antares landed.

AA:  ...

A:   (281) They will soon be setting up a whole complex here with
a nuclear generator for their power and all the equipment laid
out according to a special plan which has been worked out in
advance.

AA:  ...

C:   (282) And now, Shepard is now joining Mitchell at the lunar
module having set up the camera away from the lunar module to
show us their activities.

AA:  ...

A:   (283) I rather suspect in these early stages the astronauts
always enjoy this experience of the low G on the moon, and
they're jumping about a bit. (284) They call it familiarization,
but I suspect it's rather good fun as well.

AA:  ...

A:   (285) That's all for the moment from the Apollo Studio.

[(286) Announcer: Colin R. with Arthur Garret in our Apollo
Studio. (288) And we shall be joining them again during the day
when there are the latest developments.]

                                 * * *


APOLLO-14, 5.2.71, 22.00-

BFBS  The World Tonight, 5.2.71  22.00   (FM)

(291) NEWS SUMMARY

[0205 22:00]

[(292) The News Headlines]

(293) The Apollo astronauts, Shepard and Mitchell have spent
nearly five hours on the surface of the moon, and they sent back
the first live colour television pictures.


[(294) The News in Detail]

(295) The Apollo 14 astronauts Alan Shepard and Edgar Mitchell
spent four hours forty minutes on the moon today, a quarter of an
hour more than planned. (296) This morning they landed right on
target, but it was a touch-and-go operation until the last few
minutes. (297) During their walk on the moon they carried out all
the tasks set for them, as our air correspondent Reginald Turnill
reports from ground control at Houston.

R:   (298) After working for nearly twenty-four hours non-stop
and overcoming a whole series of crises that looked like
interfering with the mission, Shepard and Mitchell have returned
well satisfied to rest in Antares, the lunar module. (299) In the
last hour before they climbed back and closed the hatch they
collected two moon rocks the size of small footballs. (300) And
Mitchell was successful with thirteen of his eighteen attempts to
fire cartridges with a device called a thumper on the surface of
the moon. (301) He said it was like firing both barrels of a
shotgun at once as he placed a cylinder on the lunar surface
while the cartridge inside thumped a metal plate against the
soil. (302) Mitchell had to stand still five seconds before and
five seconds after each shot so that his foot steps did not
muffle the seismic waves being sent back to earth by geophones he
had placed in position. (303) Alan Shepard became America's fifth
man on the moon as well as their first in space at 3.54 p.m.
British time today. (306) He was followed ten minutes later by Ed
Mitchell. (307) They were fifty-four minutes late starting their
first EVA or moon walk because of the last of a series of
frustrating problems. (308) This time the inability to establish
voice communications between mission control and Shepard inside
his space suit. (309) But that was solved when at last the right
switch combination was found. (310) Once outside he quickly
deployed the colour TV camera. (311) And for the whole of the
moon walk pictures of a pale green moon contrasting with the
bright yellows, reds and blues of the spacecraft and the US flag
flowed back to Houston and then on to much of the rest of the
world. (312) Working fast Shepard and Mitchell made up much of
their lost time on the moon and towards the end though still
cheerful and occasionally bursting into songs it sounded as if
they were nearing exhaustion point.


(313) And while we've been on the air, suddenly, another hitch on
the moon. (314) Here's Arthur Garret, of the BBC's Apollo team,
Arthur, what's been happening?

[0205 22:30]


A:   (315) Well, there has been another vicissitude, Douglas, and
this is that Mitchell's space suit has a slight leak. (316) And
he is in fact losing oxygen.

D:   (317) How dangerous is this?

A:   (318) Well, it isn't so much dangerous, but it probably will
affect tomorrow's EVA, Extra Vehicular Activity or moon walk, if
you like. (319) Now the situation is that they didn't get
everything done that they wanted to today, so they proposed to
stretch tomorrow's moon walk to the full five hours. (320) Now if
they got this leak in the space suit, they won't be able to do
this, and they will have to shorten it, and they won't get the
whole of the mission accomplished. (321) This is the situation.

D:   (322) Can we be certain that the astronauts can get safely
home?

A:   (323) Well, I suppose we can never be certain, but there's
no real danger that we expect. (324) So far they've had their
troubles, but remember that the separation and the descent were,
in fact, perfect, the landing was beautifully accomplished, the
tilt of the thing is only seven degrees, which is perfectly safe
for the take-off, there is some very slight doubt about the
docking; you remember when they turned the lunar module round
they had some trouble, but the separation was perfect and we
expect the docking to be okay. (325) Well, of course, however you
look at it, this is a dicey business, but we have no reason to
suppose that there are any special risks in coming home. (326)
The only danger is they may not be able to accomplish as much as
they wanted to.

D:   (327) Were you able to gauge the mood in Houston?

A:   (328) The mood in Houston is pretty good. (329) They're
really pretty happy about everything. (330) They're doing a lot
of new things. (331) They had a little bit of trouble with their
so-called thumpers today. (332) These are really little squibs
they're laying out in order to find the wave motion to the
surface of the moon. (333) Now they had twenty-one of these
thumpers, and only thirteen of them fired. (334) Well, this was a
bit of a nuisance, and so on, and so on, but there was no
disaster about it. (335) On the other hand, they've collected two
large bits of rock, bigger than footballs, and they're very happy
about this, because Fra Mauro has the oldest rock probably in the
solar system, and this is what they want to get home.

D:   (336) Arthur Garret, thank you.

                                 * * *


APOLLO-14 6.2.71, 10.45 - 14.00

BBC 2  6.2.71, 10.45 -  (Longwaves - Transistor, microphone)

(339) SECOND MOON WALK [0206 09:15]

[0206 10:45] 
[0206 second walk + 01:30:00]

A:   ... (340) Arthur Garret here with the news that Shepard and
Mitchell stepped onto the moon just about an hour and a half ago,
starting their walk considerably earlier than was expected. (341)
And at the moment they've - have got their apparatus on their
little truck and they are trundling it on the one-mile walk to
Cone Crater. (342) Already they are much farther away from the
lunar module than man has ever been away from a lunar module
before. (343) They hope to go to Cone Crater, have a look inside
it, chip some rocks off and so on, and so on. (344) Now the
countryside there, if you can use their term, is undulating
continuously, and of course it's dark and lonely, a quarter of a
million miles away. (345) Well, we've been listening to what
Shepard and Mitchell have been reporting back from the moon, so
let's listen to this for a few moments.

AA:  ...

AA:  (346) Shepard and Mitchell describing the terrain on their
walk from station A to B.

AA:  ...

A:   (347) Well, [garbled] on that conducted tour of the moon we
recorded a short time ago. (348) Colin R.'s been keeping 
up-to-date to what's been happening since, so a word from him.

C:   (350) Yes, they're now two thirds of the way to Cone Crater,
which means that very shortly they will begin to encounter that
ten to fifteen degrees slope up towards the rim of the crater.
(351) They've just been checking their life support system, there
is no trouble with them at all, and all the instruments on their
chest-mounted control panels are showing absolutely normal. (352)
So it's going to get very much, steadily more exciting as they
get up towards the rim of that crater, I think.

A:   (353) Thank you, Colin R. (354) Well, we'll be keeping you
up-to-date all through the day as long as the moon walk goes on.
(355) Now back from the Apollo Studio to Joe Henderson. 


[0206 11:00]

X:   ... (356) the undulating surface is now rising. (357) One of
the astronauts mentioned that in the valley they're walking
through the angle of the sun is making it difficult for them to
see. (358) But they are among a lot of boulders, mostly rounded
but some angled. (359) One of them just mentioned that from where
they are the lunar module looks as if it has a flap, by the way
it's leaning. (360) But this is only seven degrees, which is well
within the safe limits for take-off. (361) The collection of rock
samples is evidently requiring their combined strength at times
of them, which is probably one reason why they're fifteen minutes
behind schedule in their four and a quarter hour walk. (362) But
here is some description of what they're seeing at the moment.

AA:  ...

(363) And now back to Colin Nichols in the news room.




C:   ... (364) the surface of the moon, and when they get up to
the rim, in a few minutes, they'll look down about two hundred
and fifty feet into the centre of that crater. (365) It should be
a very exciting moment for them. (366) There's been sounds of
rather heavy breathing, they've been climbing up the flank of the
crater, the side of the crater, something like thirteen degrees
slope there, and Mission Control have just told them to take a
little stop. (367) Now let's hear NASA now and see what is going
on.

AA:  ...  (368) a hundred and fifty, Mitchell's is 128 ..

C:   (369) Well, there we are, Arthur, they've obviously been
working hard to get up towards the rim of Cone Crater,
haven't they, with those heart rates up to a hundred and fifty. 

A:   (370) Well, they got a pretty good load, of course, on their
truck they're pulling up with them.

C:   (371) A hundred and fifteen, was it? (372) A hundred and
fifteen beats a minute. (373) They have now passed the point
where they might have dropped off their little two-wheeled moon
truck if they wanted to, but it looks as if they're keeping it
with them right up to the very top, as indeed they were allowed
to do if they wanted to. 

(374) As for those who have, for listeners who've kept 
yesterday's pages of the Radio Times with a map showing this EVA,
this excursion to Cone Crater, they have now just passed over the
little ridge which comes out of the Cone Crater at about seven
o'clock. (375) And they're in the boulder field right to the
south of Cone Crater just coming out approaching the rim any time
now. 

AA:  ...

(376) Let's have some information now about the heart beat rate.
(377) Shepard's is 115, Mitchell's 128. (378) Remember the normal
heart rate is something like 73, so they're in about the
condition in which (they'd been) chasing a bus. (379) Well, let's
listen to them again.

AA:  ...

C:   [(380) garbled] despite the fact that they only weigh one
sixth their normal weight here on earth. (381) It's certain to be
quite an effort for them to get up [garbled] towards the end of
the crater.

A:   [(382) garbled] yesterday their metabolic rate, that's their
rate of consumption of oxygen and so on, was 20 percent below
what was expected.

AA:  ...

C:   (383) They're twenty minutes later than they should be on
this walk. (384) When they get to Cone Crater they may then be
given permission to extend the walk time by half an hour, that is
to four and three quarter hours. 

((385) Kurze Umschaltpause)

AA:  ...

A:   (386) That's a half hour extension.

AA:  ...

C:   (387) They clearly mean three quarters of the way to, three
quarters of the way up the side of the crater.

AA:  ...

A:   (388) They've got their half hour extension.

AA:  ...

C:   (389) Haise of course is the capsule communicator at this
time. (390) He was on Apollo 13, as people will remember.

AA:  ...

A:   (391) Some of these boulders they're talking about are as
big as motor cars incidentally.

C:   (392) They, just before we came on the air, they did mention
that they'd discovered a very peculiar looking one, apparently
twelve feet long and two feet wide, half spheric and looking very
weathered. (393) Very, very old.

A:   (394) In fact, these should be the oldest rocks on the moon,
which is one of the reasons that they have chosen this particular
site for the investigation. (395) And the important thing is to
bring some hunks home so that these can be dated by various
techniques in the laboratory. (396) And they might well be the
oldest rocks anywhere in the solar system.

C:   (397) Something like four and a half thousand million years
they're expecting, aren't they, Arthur?

A:   (398) Something of that order. (399) Because some of these
rocks have come up from deep down under the lunar crust. (400)
This is the formation of the Cone Crater.

AA:  ...

C:    (401) There you can hear the heavy breathing. (402) Hard
work up there.

AA:  ...

A:   (403) They have already collected a couple of rocks bigger
than footballs, so they've got something on this trip already.

AA:  ...

C:   (404) They're now taking a panoramic photograph of this
[garbled] region to bring back to compare with the rocks that
they bring back, to show the position of the rocks picked up at
this time.

A:   (405) It is most important they should have a precise
location of where they picked up each bit of rock for the
geologists here on earth. (406) I say geologists, selenologists
presumably is the word here.

C:   (407) On these heart beats, 128 and a 115, this is well
within the limits allowed.

AA:  ...

A:   (408) For now, with the two astronauts Shepard and Mitchell
climbing up the side of the Cone Crater probably the culmination
of the whole trip, we'll be leaving you for the time being, we'll
come back with the news as the news happens. (409) But now, for
the time being, back to Joe Henderson.

[0206 11:20]


C:   (410) Here we're waiting for the astronauts to do what they
promised to do, and that is to get up to the edge of this very
interesting looking Cone Crater and look down two hundred and
fifty feet to the bottom, to the middle of this crater. (411) At
the moment they're just continuing with experiments, and it is
possible because there is a high-in-time with this walk, that
they may not get up to the top of the crater at all because they
have to be back four hours forty-five minutes after they set out,
and they've already been out two and a half, nearly two and three
quarter hours. (412) So that climax to the mission might not take
place. (413) We hope it will, we'll just have to wait and see.
(414) Meanwhile Larry Hotson has been talking to Reg Turnill at
Mission Control, and he asked him about the feelings there, how
the mission had gone so far and the prospect for an on-time
take-off from the moon this evening.

[0206 second walk + 02:40:00]

R:   (415) The EVA, this moon walk, which started early - Shepard
was quite determined to do as much as possible - so despite that
twenty-four hour day he insisted on getting started early - of
course they must get off on time, there's no option there, you
could, they could slip one orbit, that is one orbit of the
command module, but you've got to get off to the second to make
the rendezvous, so there's no question of being late.

L:   (416) And no underlying tension about all the little
technical problems that've been cropping up?

R:   (417) There certainly is concern. (418) I think, the feeling
about the snags is enormous satisfaction, that despite the snags
they've met and conquered each one as it has arisen. (419) But
undoubtedly there's going to be thorough inquiry when the mission
is over into these particular technical snags. (420) Coupled with
the general feeling here that the space programme has had a bad
time, lots of redundancies and sackings, lots of financial cuts,
and it would be asking too much of human nature to maintain the
standard of perfection we had in the earlier missions.

C:   (421) Well, Arthur Garret. (422) You think we're going to
see this Cone Crater trip come off?

A:   (423) Well, I hope so. (424) I think the best thing we could
do now, Colin, is to listen to the astronauts on the moon live a
quarter of a million miles away.

AA:  ... ((425) Nichts)

A:   (426) As usual when we want the astronauts, of course
they're not there. (427) But they'll be talking at any moment,
meanwhile I'll go on explaining just what is happening. (428)
They're climbing up the side of Cone Crater, this oldest point on
the moon. (429) Here they come.

AA:  ... (430) two hours thirty-six minutes since cabin depress
...

A:   [(431) garbled] this whole series of [garbled] that they've
set up on different points on the moon.

AA:  ...

A:   (432) And they have cancelled two of them because of the
time.

AA:  ...

C:   (433) So they're continuing with the really important tasks,
which are, of course, to collect samples and do these tests with
the moon's magnetic field and so on. (434) And all this stuff
takes time, they've got to photograph every sight, haven't they?

A:   (435) They have. (436) Incidentally [garbled] we've had a
message about their heart beat. (437) Shepard, at the moment, is
108, and Mitchell is 86. (438) Shepard happens to be doing a
little bit more work. (439) These heart beats are, considering
the circumstances, extremely low, so there doesn't seem to be any
trouble there, despite all the hard work of climbing up the side
of this Cone Crater.

(440) Well now, we will be bringing you the news as it happens,
but now from Colin R. (441) and me, Arthur Garret, here in the
Apollo Studio, we go back to Joe Henderson.

[0206 11:45]



[News]

[0206 12:00]

(443) The Apollo 14 astronauts, Shepard and Mitchell, have been
out on the surface of the moon for their second exploration.
(444) We'll be going over to the Apollo Studio for the latest
situation in about a minute.


X:   (445) Well, they're now on their way back to the lunar
module, having abandoned the last stage of their moon walk to the
edge of Cone crater. (446) This must be a bitter disappointment
to the Apollo 14 project because it was the high point of this
mission. (447) But it has been an ambitious expedition and much
more arduous than they hoped it would be. (448) Mission Control
is now anxious to get regular readings of their oxygen
consumption, [garbled] their heart rates are now less than they
were. (449) The sun is now behind them, so they're able to see
things on the moon surface in better perspective and be more
accurate about it. (450) Two of their scheduled stops have been
cut out, and they're now in a field of very big boulders, and
they're grabbing soil and rock samples by the handful. (451) And
this is the most recent conversation we've had from the moon
[garbled].

AA:  ...

X:   (452) And that's all from the Apollo Studio for the time
being.




C:   ... (453) to give up their attempt to get to the very rim of
Cone Crater which would have been a high point of the mission in
two senses of that phrase. (454) It was mainly because they were
running out of time, not so much because they were tired,
although there was a lot of heavy breathing and they have used
quite a lot of their oxygen. (455) So they decided to come back,
they've been out now about three hours, they're approaching Weird
Crater, which is a point just about halfway between Cone Crater
and the lunar module. (456) Coming back now from the site of Cone
Crater, the sun is behind them, and this has given them some
difficulty in seeing precisely where they're treading.

[0206 second walk + 03:00:00]

AA:  ...

C:   (457) Weird Crater is what they call a small crater halfway
between Cone and Antares. (458) They were having trouble, you
probably heard, defraction was done falling on their back
creating a halo round their shadow where it falls on the moon
surface and of course any shadow on the surface of the moon is
totally black, there is absolutely no light there at all. (459)
So if there's a pop-over of any sort, a tiny crater, a tiny dent,
they might lose their balance. (460) So far it's going very well,
they clearly enjoyed coming downhill from halfway up the side of
Cone Crater instead of struggling up it, uphill, as they had been
doing previously. (461) Now, it's about an hour and three
quarters before they have to be back inside Antares, so they have
got quite a bit of time in hand now to do some of the experiments
that we thought they might have to miss out. (462) At Weird
Crater they will be digging a trench, what they call a soil
mechanics experiment, and they'll be digging a bore down into the
surface of the moon hoping to get quite a deep core sample from
underneath the surface of the moon. (463) They're getting on with
that now. (464) Let's just have a quick listen and see how
they're doing.

[0206 planned end of second walk - 01:45:00]

AA:  ...

C:   (465) We just heard that they've knocked 15 minutes off the
extra half hour that they were given so that this - this extra
vehicular activity will be lasting four and a half hours instead
of four and three quarters. (466) Mission Control have been a bit
concerned about the way with which oxygen was being used, they
haven't shown their concern about it, but they have been asking
the astronauts regularly to send back readings from their chest
control panels, precisely how much oxygen they have got left.
(467) So I - so I calculate that they will be back inside Antares
about 2.50, I think, no sorry, 1.50, they should be back inside
Antares and then have time in hand before this evening's
blast-off from the moon to do what Shepard wanted to do and that
is to have plenty of time to package up all the samples, plenty
of time to sort themselves out before the very nervous business
of launching off the moon surface, getting into orbit and meeting
up with Kitty Hawk orbiting overhead at this time, and setting
off for home. (470) So 1.50 then they should be back inside
Antares, and that's all for now from the Apollo Studio.

[0206 12:20]



A:   ... (472) Arthur Garret here. (473) Well, the two
astronauts, Shepard and Mitchell, have now been on the moon
surface for the last three and a half hours. (474) And in fact
they got 55 minutes remaining before they will go back to the
LM. (475) Unfortunately they couldn't reach the rim of the Cone
Crater, they just ran out of time. (476) On the way home they're
busy doing experiments, when I say home: back to the LM of
course. (477) And at the moment Mitchell is taking core samples
and Shepard is digging a trench. (478) This is how Shepard and Ed
Mitchell described it:

[0206 12:45]

AA:  ...

A:   (479) Now let me explain what they're doing. (480) First of
all Mitchell taking the core samples. (481) He has six tubes, and
they're each fifteen inches long. (482) And they can be driven
into the loose soil, he has a special sampling hammer for this
job, and then the soil is collected in [garbled] and and they're
brought home so that they will have samples of what's immediately
underneath the lunar surface. (483) Now, Shepard on the other
hand's digging a trench. (484) Now this is not making sand
castles on the moon at all. (485) There is a very good reason for
this. (486) What he wants to do here is to find out what is known
of the angle of [garbled]. 

(487) You know if you have a pile of sand, well, there is a
certain angle on earth at which this sand will settle. (488) This
is given partly by the gravitational field and also by the
coefficient of friction of the material. (489) And you can
calculate it from this. (490) And they want to know what the
coefficient of friction of the lunar material is. (491) So the
idea was to dig this trench, then they could measure the angle of
which the lunar material, sandy sort of stuff if you like,
actually laid inside the trench. (492) Well, as you heard,
Shepard had real trouble because the whole thing started
collapsing. (493) And it doesn't look as though they're going to
get a great deal from this. (494) Well now, the men are still at
this work. (495) They're a bit tired now, and they're probably
not talking as much as they were, but let's go over live to the
moon to hear what's going on.

AA:  ... (496) sample bags ...

A:   [(497) garbled] sample bags by the way are teflon bags about
the size of envelopes, and they got 35 of them.

AA:  ...

A:   (498) In addition to the sample bags they got a special
container, known as the Environmental Container, there is a high
vacuum, of course, on the moon, there is no atmosphere there at
all. (499) And they put the things into this and then they seal
it and they bring it home in vacuum, so to speak, for the vacuum
is maintained and it's not contaminated by the air of the earth
when they get it home. (500) They can get it into a lab and have
a look at it. (501) They've had trouble with one of these bags
that hasn't sealed properly. (502) These are really the sort of
things, well, not unlike the type of things that you put
sandwiches in, to take on a picnic. (503) They're each four
inches by five inches, they're made of teflon, which is a rather
more expensive material than the ordinary type of thing that we
use. (504) Well, let's listen to them.


AA:  ...

A:   (505) They are on their way back, back to the LM now. (506)
They seem to have given up their experiments there.

AA:  ...

A:   (507) Well, now it looks as though they are actually on
their way back to the LM, and this second EVA, an Extra
Vehicular Activity, seems to be coming to an end. (508) And they
go back, have a rest and eventually blast off back to earth
again. (509) Of course, first of all linking up with the command
module in space.

AA:  ...

A:   (510) And if they run on schedule, they are due to leave the
moon surface in the LM at about a quarter to eight our time this
evening. (511) But of course they are running ahead of schedule,
it is just to see, well, they may go off early, we don't know
this here.

AA:  ...

A:   (512) This is the 20th century speech game.

AA:  ...

A:   (513) What they've been doing there is taking stereoscopic
pictures. (514) Now they should be back in the LM in about three
quarters of an hour. (515) Well, that's about all for the moment.
(516) And now back from the Apollo Studio. 

[0206 12:50]


(517) Announcer: [garbled] the moon. (518) This time's the most
exhausting part of their exploration. (519) We'll be going over
to our Apollo Studio for the latest situation in about a minute.


L:   (520) Shepard and Mitchell have spent some time at Triplet
Crater collecting samples and taking photographs, not entirely
successfully. (521) Mitchell struck rock when he was hammering
tubes into the soil and what little soil he got dropped out of
the tube. (522) Shepard has been digging a trench, but the sides
kept falling in, so he doubted whether the samples he took from
the bottom of this trench did in fact come from the bottom. (523)
They have about forty minutes left of their moon walk, and about
twenty minutes ago one of them reported he'd used two thirds of
his oxygen, so they still have emergency supplies in hand if
necessary. (524) They've just left the rim of north crater and
now they're pressing on back to the lunar module. (525) And in
fact, they've just reported that they're approaching the lunar
module, where they still have some work to do because this is
where the bulk of their experimental and scientific package has
been set up.

(526) Well, that's all from the Apollo Studio for the time being.

[0206 13:00]


[0206 14:00]

L:   (527) to reopen the hatch to pull out unnecessary equipment
and moon dirt. (528) It's important to rid themselves of all dust
before they become weightless again, when they're in orbit. (529)
Shepard and Mitchell preserved their sense of humour right to the
end of their arduous walk as is illustrated when they knocked
over the TV camera and cut the world off for a few seconds.

AA:  ...

L:   (530) And this is how they ended physical contact with the
moon:

AA:  ...

L:   (531) And for the rest of the news back to Colin Nichols.

                                 * * *


APOLLO-14   6.2.71, 19.30-

BBC 2  6.2.71, 19.30 (Longwaves, Transistor, micro) / later BFBS)

(534) LEAVING THE MOON

[0206 19:30]

C:   (535) in eighteen and a half minutes from now it's due, at
7.49 p.m. BST, eleven minutes to eight, in fact, and at this
stage the crew, Shepard and Ed Mitchell, are just about ready to
go. (538) They've been exchanging numbers with mission control at
Houston, and they've been updating their inertial measurement
unit on board so that when they take off to go into orbit to meet
up with Roosa in orbit in the command module Kitty Hawk overhead,
their lunar module will be perfectly oriented in space to do a
direct rendezvous with them. (539) And it's the first time that
American astronauts have ever done a direct rendezvous bringing
them much more quickly towards the docking with the command
craft. (540) So it's going to be interesting to see how that goes
because it is another first. (541) As I say, Shepard and Mitchell
were talking with Mission Control, they've done a lot of that
since they got back into the lunar module after their very long
and very tiring second moon walk today. (542) And one of the
questions that was asked of them came from Fred Haise who flew on
the ill-fated Apollo 13 mission, he was the capsule communicator
today, and he asked Shepard and Mitchell why they thought they
hadn't made it right up to the very top of the Cone Crater as
they'd hoped.

AA:  ...

C:   (543) Well, just sixteen minutes to go now until they lift
off from the Fra Mauro region, and they've been given the final
go for lift-off and the direct rendezvous with Roosa, still Roosa
orbiting overhead.

[0206 19:33]

(544) With me Arthur Garret, who's been watching the day's events
as they unfolded. (545) Arthur.

A:   (546) Now, thank you, Colin. (547) We'll flash back on some
of the events of today's moon walk. (548) Shepard and Mitchell
got down from Antares on to the moon at about a quarter past nine
this morning. (549) They loaded the truck, at a cost of 8000 œ
the most expensive wheelbarrow in use today, and they set off to
do experiments, collect samples and investigate Cone Crater,
nearly a mile away. (550) They were soon describing the scene and
collecting rock-samples:

AA:  ...        

A:   (551) Just over 14 minutes to lift-off now. (552) Well, they
reached the base of the rim of Cone-Crater and started up it.
(553) But as Shepard said just now they were too ambitious and
couldn't reach the top. (554) They ran out of time. (555) They
had to be back on schedule or they would have run out of vital
oxygen. (556) On the way back to Antares they had problems with
the unusual conditions on the moon:

[0206 19:35]

AA:  ... (557) halo effect ...

A:   (558) Well, sixteen and a half minutes to lift-off now.
(559) No, thirteen and a half, right. (560) Well, when they got
near the lunar module again they both started digging. (561) Ed
Mitchell was taking core samples, using fifteen inch hollowed
tubes which he was trying to hammer in, looking like giant apple
corers, while Shepard was digging a trench, some fifty feet from
Ed to find out how the lunar dust behaved.

[0206 19:36] AA:  ...

A:   (562) Shepard's failure to form a trench was of great
scientific interest. (563) Among the phone calls we received this
afternoon was one from a friend of mine, Professor Don Freshwater
of Blackpool University. (564) He's one of the scientists who's
been studying samples of moon material from the Apollo 11 and 12
missions. (565) He pointed out that they hadn't expected such
definite foot prints that they got on previous missions. (566)
They had expected instead collapse of the dust, as Shepard found
in his trench.

[Aufnahmepause: Umschalten auf BFBS (FM)]

... (568) was. (569) So Don Freshwater's itching to get his
fingers on some samples of this mission's dust.

(570) About half an hour later Shepard and Mitchell approached
the lunar module and Shepard knocked the TV camera over.

AA:  ...

A:   (571) So, here you are, if you want to clean your camera
lens, try lunar dust. (572) It's now just ten minutes to
lift-off.

[0206 19:39]

(573) As the time approached to leave the moon, Mitchell went up
the ladder and Shepard started to send samples up the conveyor.
(574) Then Al Shepard started to play golf. (575) Yes, he
produced a golf ball, put it down and drove it with one of the
special moon tools. (576) We don't know how well he hit it, but
he should have recorded the longest drive in history in the low
gravity and zero pressure. (577) Then, before the Antares door
was closed, Shepard said goodbye to the moon.

AA:  ...

A:   (578) Praise indeed from Fred Haise, who of course was on
the Apollo 13 mission. (579) And now we're just over nine minutes
to go before lift-off. (580) Let me tell you that Houston's still
not absolutely happy about the docking, due just after half past
nine tonight. (581) And they've worked out on their computer
eight different ways of getting from Antares to Kitty Hawk if the
docking fails. (582) The two astronauts have been told to have
their space walk life lines ready. (583) So this could turn out
to be rather hairy. (584) Well now, we're just under nine minutes
to go before lift-off. (585) I'm handing it back to Colin R.

[0206 19:40]

C:   (586) And Shepard and Mitchell have just been told that
everything looks good. (587) Of course Mission Control have got

((588) Aufnahmepause: Umschalten auf anderes Band)

C:   (589) good, and it's very touch-and-go this lift-off from
the moon in the sense that the window, the launch window, the
time during which they can safely launch for their direct
rendezvous with Kitty Hawk up above, is only 30 seconds. (590)
Just half a minute if they're going to do it right this time.
(591) If they miss that thirty-second lift-off, they'll have to
wait until Kitty Hawk comes round again, that'll be two hours
later. (592) So, the phase that we're getting into now, is the
seven minute ten second lift-off into orbit around the moon.
(593) And that's coming up, let's see, what? (594) Nine, eight
minutes from now, just under eight minutes from now. (595)
They'll fire the ascent engine of the lunar module to lift them
for seven minutes, ten seconds until they're in moon orbit, at an
altitude of 51 nautical miles at its high point, and nine
nautical miles at its low point. (596) And then, after a
predetermined time after they've got into orbit, 38 minutes in
fact after they're in orbit, they can start the terminal phase of
linking up with Kitty Hawk. (597) This is the phase in which the
lunar module approaches the command module up there in its 60
nautical mile orbit. (598) Now everybody's hoping that
communications between Antares and the ground and Antares and
Kitty Hawk are going to be good. (599) There has been some
trouble, I think, Arthur, with the steerable antenna on the lunar
module. (600) Have you kept in touch with that at all?

A:   (601) Yes, what has happened is that the normal radio link
that they're going to use, what they call their FM link, they're
not going to use at all, because it's not working, and they're
going to use a VHF, Very High Frequency, link. (602) I think,
Colin, we might remind people about this lift-off. (603) That in
fact this module leaves part of itself on the moon, and just the
top bit comes off with a separate engine. (604) So this is a
different engine from the one that let them down. (605) This is
an engine that has, in fact, never run in its life before, except
on test. (606) When this takes place, they go up and seven
minutes after the lift-off, they have to insert themselves into a
lunar orbit. (607) So that they're going round and round the
moon, and then, as Colin told you, nearly an hour later, comes
the terminal phase initiate which boosts the LM into the correct
orbit for the rendezvous. (608) But it's got to go into a
parking-orbit first. (609) Have you picked up anything else since
then, Colin?

C:   (610) No, just adding to what you said, it's one hour and
twenty-five minutes after they get into orbit, I think, that the
final rendezvous happens. (611) That's when the two craft are
close enough together to dock. (612) In other words, what we're
about to hear about now, the launch, is by no means the end of
the business, they have got the problems, all the problems, all
the possible problems of rendezvous and docking ahead of them.
(613) Their working-day's by no means over yet, and what - We're
not hearing anything at this stage between the astronauts and
Houston, they're just sitting tight while the clock counts down
steadily towards the lift-off moment.

C:   (614) Five minutes to the lunar lift-off.

[0206 19:44]

C:   (615) The reason they're doing this direct rendezvous, which
means that they meet up with Kitty-Hawk when they've been around
the m-, two thirds of the way around the moon instead of going
right round it twice as they always have before, the reason for
the direct rendezvous is so that they can cut two hours off the
whole working-day.  (616) It's been a long working-day already
and they're anxious to get them back and docked as soon as
possible. (617) You'll remember that on the launch day they did
have some trouble docking, docking the craft in orbit round the
earth, when they drew the lunar module out of its protective
cover, turned it around and tried to dock it nose to nose with
Kitty Hawk, there was some difficulty and they only succeeded at
the sixth attempt. (618) So there's bound to be anxiety at this
moment and they might have a repetition of those difficulties
once Antares gets into orbit. (619) So it's extremely important
that the two men should not be too tired for a bit of quick
thinking when they get into orbit. (620) And we've been watching
them here throughout the day and seeing them, soun-,  seeing them
looking tired, sounding tired at the end of their very strenuous
moon walk, which was almost two miles long there and back, wasn't
it, Arthur? 

A:   (621) Yes, and apparently there was a little bit of trouble
here with Shepard's suit. (622) It seemed to get a little bit
hot, 

C: The suit?

A: the suit - and for this reason the heart beat went up
considerably higher than Mitchell's. (623) Some unkind people
have said it's because he is a grandfather, but I suspect it was
in fact a suit fault. (624) Incidentally, this early rendezvous
that Colin was talking about, it's quite interesting, quite
interesting that on this particular rendezvous they've got on the
flight pan, plan "tweak if required". (625) So they got a little
ability to push with the rocket and pull it exactly into the
right matching orbit to join up with CSM.

C:   (626) Three minutes to lift-off now. (627) I didn't want to
sound alarmist then that the men may be too tired when they get
up to do these very tricky manoeuvres with the precision which I
am sure they will have at their command when the time comes.
(628) But I have - , because I have been listening to Dr. Chuck
Berry, the astronauts' doctor at Houston in the last hour or so,
and he's been quite optimistic about the way these men have
performed and will perform. (630) He says that what they've done
on the moon today has shown that man can in fact do more than
we'd thought.

[0206 19:46]

A:   (631) Kitty Hawk is now calling Antares, or trying to
rather.  

AA:  ...

A:   (632) So there is a bit - there is a bit of a communication
problem at this point.

AA:  ...

C:   (633) So two minutes until the lift-off now.

[0206 19:47]

A:   (634) Well, we'll listen to the talk between Houston Control
and the astronauts as it comes through.

C:   (635) So, just to continue what - what Chuck Berry was
saying about the condition of Shepard who is America's oldest man
in space -

AA:  ...

C:   (636) Shepard's forty-seven years old, of course, and his
heart rates were pretty high during the moon walk, but Berry says
that 

AA:  ...

C:   (637) the metabolic cost of Shepard wasn't bad, he had
occasional high heart rates but that didn't mean that he was
getting exhausted or overheated. (638) And as I say, he said that
that EVA showed that man is capable of doing more than originally
thought, in space. (639) So it looks hopeful. (640) If Chuck
Berry is hopeful, I must say I am.

A:   (641) Well, it's now one minute and a quarter till lift-off.

AA:  ...

A:   (642) One minute.

[0206 19:48]

AA:  ...

A:   (643) Thirty seconds to go.

AA:  ...

C:   (644) See you soon, one of them said.

AA:  ...

A:   (645) Fifteen.

AA:  (646) five, four, three, two, one, zero ... (647) roger
ignition ... (648) through ... (649) ten seconds ...

[0206 19:49]

C:   (650) The guidance, the onboard guidance has now taken over
control.

AA:  ...

C:   (651) They are now tilting over at an angle, speeding up
very quickly now.

AA:  ...

C:   (652) At this point, in effect, they're on their backs,
aren't they, they're not - they're no longer vertical or
[garbled] to the moon.

AA:  ...

A:   (653) This one they really make confidence in their
computer.

C:   (654) We did have that spurious abort signal during the
landing phase, don't forget, which -

AA:  ...

C:   (655) They've been rising now for two minutes, another five
and a bit to go.

[0206 19:51] AA:  ...

A:   (656) It's quite a way up to -

AA:  ...

A:   (657) Going up at the rate of a mile a minute on average.
AA:  ...

A:   (658) That's seven hundred miles an hour.

AA:  ...

C:   (659) And from that standing start they've got to get up to
forty thousand miles an hour to go into orbit.

AA:  ...

A:   (660) Of course, the interesting thing is they can't see
what they're aiming at.

AA:  ...

C:   (661) Talking about the pre-, the fuel pressures in their
reaction control system the little motors on the side of the
lunar module, which they don't really need at this stage.

AA:  ...

C:   (662) "Nominal" really means fine, I think, in this context.

A:   (663) It used to be called "all systems go" in the old days.

C:   (664) It might be helpful just to say which direction
they're going, taking off from the surface of the moon. (665) As
we look at it, they are in effect turn-, making a right-hand turn
and going around the back.

AA:  ...

C:   (666) The two guidance systems are in [garbled]. 

AA:  ...

C:   (667) The primary onboard guidance system and the abort
guidance system both agreeing with each other, which is always
comforting. (668) Both producing the same set of figures which
means that there's no conflict.

AA:  ...

C:   (669) And MISFIN is the network of tracking stations on the
earth which also agrees with what the computer says.

AA:  ...

C:   (670) Talking about taking pictures.

A:   (671) It's just five minutes from lift-off now.

[0206 19:54]

AA:  ...

A:   (672) So in two minutes they should go into the lunar orbit
inside.

AA:  ...

C:   (673) They are in fact disappearing round the left edge of
the moon's disk, 

A:   nine miles up.

AA:  ...

A:   (674) And we got about seven seconds to the six-minute mark.

[0206 19:55]

AA:  ...

C:   (675) And it'll take them seven minutes twelve seconds,
that's just over a minute to go, until they're safely in orbit,
rising all the time, gaining height and speed.

AA:  ...

C:   (676) As they lifted off, Kitty Hawk was almost directly
overhead and will have been watching this and trying to take
pictures of the ascent.

A:   (677) They should be in lunar orbit in just twenty seconds
from now.

AA:  ...

[0206 19:56]

C:   (678) So they're in orbit now, and they say residuals look
good, which means that they've got fuel in hand if they have to
make further manoeuvres, they hope they won't, they hope they're
on the nail.

A:   (679) Well, this means that the first stage of getting home
is clear now, Colin. (680) The real trouble, I think, is going to
be possibly on this docking. (681) Because they did have trouble
on the docking coming up. (682) Houston Mission Control are
certainly scared of this one.

AA:  ...

A:   (683) So they're in an orbit fifty-one miles by nine miles,
which is very similar to the one they were in before touchdown.

C:   (684) And it's very similar, it's almost exactly what they
wanted to achieve, as well, isn't it? 

AA:  ...

A:   (685) Now the situation with this docking is that if the
docking doesn't work, they've got a whole series of
belts-and-braces on this. (686) But they're pretty dicey. (687)
They've been told to have their life lines ready in case they
have to do a space-walk between the two ships. (688) Now this
would not be an easy thing to do. (689) I remember that they
haven't got a line to pull on to the other ship. (690) It's not
like a normal space walk. (691) They got to get a line between
the two and then pull themselves in. (692) Well, now this should
take place, this docking, at just after half past nine. (693) And
we will be with you, of course, to tell you exactly what is going
on at that time.

[0206 planned docking - 01:32] AA:  ...

A:   (694) Now we'll listen to the astronauts talking to Houston.

AA:  ...

A:   (695) That was the tweak I was mentioning earlier. 

C:   (696) So they're just a little bit below the orbit that they
had wanted.

AA:  ...

C:   (697) So a lot of figures being compared now, which don't
mean a great deal down, down on earth to us listening to them.

AA:  ...

C:   (698) The question of the docking, I think, is erm - is a
problem, and Houston were a bit disappointed that when they took
the probe and drogue out and Shepard and Mitchell removed the
offending probe and drogue and examined it, they could find no
fault with it. (699) And it's pretty worrying to precision
engineers not to be able to find what made something go wrong,
isn't it?

A:   (700) This is always the trouble.

C:   (701) So, but they think it might have been a speck of ice
on there, which of course would have melted as soon as they
brought it into the cabin. (702) And they're hoping that, was it,
they're hoping everything will go quite smoothly this time,
during this docking.

A:   (703) While you were talking they were giving the figures
for the tweak, and they're only a few feet per second out, their
coordinates were two, five and eight, on X, Y and Z [zed] or Z
[zi:], as they put it. (704) So this is quite a small blow in
order to get them into the exact orbit they want to be in.

AA:  ...

C:   (705) [garbled] Well, now Shepard spoke about a great deal
of relief in the command mod, in the lunar module Antares, after
they'd landed on the moon, I dare say there's a good deal of
relief in it again now. (706) A relief at Houston, and relief
here in the BBC's Apollo Studio. (707) Arthur Garret and I will
be watching the progress of the rendezvous and docking during the
evening, we'll keep you in touch. (708) Meanwhile, meanwhile from
the Apollo Studio that's all for now.

[(709) Announcer: Well, you'll be able to hear the result of the
docking manoeuvre in the news at 10 o'clock.]

[0206 20:00]

                                 * * *


APOLLO-14 6.2.71, 22.00-

BBC Radio News, BFBS  6.2.71,  22.00 (FM)

(713) THE DOCKING (Summary)


[The News Headlines]

(715) Above the moon surface the Apollo lunar module with Shepard
and Mitchell aboard redocked perfectly with the command ship 25
minutes ago.

[0206 22.00] 
[0206 docking + 00:25:00]


[The News in Detail]

(717) First Apollo 14's triumph in redocking the lunar and
command modules at the first attempt with not a single hitch,
over to Larry Hotson in our Apollo Studio.

L:   (718) Yes, and the Apollo 14 lunar module Antares docked
with the command ship Kitty Hawk just 25 minutes ago. (719) And
this is how it happened.

AA:  ...

(720) Without delay we're going over now to Reg Turnill at the
Mission Control Center in Houston.

R:   (721) And it was easily the most suspenseful and dramatic
moment of the mission. (722) Seen most excitingly here and no
doubt all over the world in colour TV.

(723) Mission Control asked them to hold off until telemetry was
established, then gave them go. (724) They closed slowly at
first, then came together with a rush and a bump like two railway
trucks. (725) A hard docking and sighs of relief. (726) Long and
anxious preparations had been made after the docking troubles on
the outward journey. (727) Various plans were ready if the
trouble re-occurred, including in the last resort all the plans
for a space walk crossing. (728) Now there seems no reason why
Shepard, Mitchell and Roosa shouldn't enjoy a restful journey
home. (729) Except for one thing: Just before lift-off we were
surprised to hear that the Apollo crew will be asked to dismantle
the docking probe and bring it home. (730) 83 pounds of metal
which is going to clutter up their tiny cabin already packed with
moon rocks during the long haul home. (731) When this was
suggested earlier in the mission, astronaut Cernan opposed the
idea, saying he wouldn't like to see that dead weight go through
the bottom of the spacecraft during re-entry. (732) Well, to make
sure that doesn't happen the astronauts will have to tie it down
under one of their couches with a hundred foot tether they
brought back from the moon.

L:   (733) Well, tonight's docking has ended an almost completely
successful day for Shepard and Mitchell, as they carried out
their second day moon walk. (734) It lasted five hours and
twenty-three minutes, which is a record for a moon walk. (735)
They carried out a series of tasks, and their only failure came
in that they couldn't quite make the arduous climb to the area
called Cone Crater, which is thought to remain exactly was when
the solar system, and that means the earth and the moon, was
forming. (736) They reached the rim of Cone Crater and started up
it, but as Shepard said later, they were too ambitious and
couldn't quite reach the top. (737) They ran out of time, as they
had to be back on schedule or they would have run out of vital
oxygen. (738) But ground control have indicated that they were
more than happy with what has been achieved. (739) And then came
a bit of knockabout comedy from Shepard before he climbed aboard
the lunar module. (740) He suddenly produced a golf ball from his
space suit and using one of the lunar tools he banged it into
space claiming it as the longest drive in history. (741) Which it
probably is in view of the weightless conditions and zero
atmosphere. (742) Then he grabbed one of the television antennae
and hurling that into space claimed the moon javelin record.
(743) And it was on that note that man's third walk on the moon
came  to an end. (744) And this is Larry Hotson in the Apollo
Studio.

                                 * * *


APOLLO-14 9.2.71, 22.00

BFBS   9.2.71 The World Tonight, 22.00  (FM)

(747) SPLASHDOWN IN THE PACIFIC

[0209 22:00]

[The News Headlines]

(749) The three Apollo astronauts should be back from the moon in
a few minutes.



(750) And as the astronauts of Apollo 14 arrive back on earth, we
ask an American space expert about future plans for the
exploration of the moon.


[The News in Detail]

S: (752) Apollo 14 is about to splash down in the Pacific, south
of Samoa. (753) The spacecraft re-entered the earth atmosphere
ten minutes ago after its journey back from the moon, and Mission
Control in Houston have confirmed with the astronauts that all is
still going to plan. (754) Straight over now to our Apollo Studio
and Larry Hotson.

[0209 22:01] 

L:   (755) And everyone waiting for the splashdown, in just about
three minutes from now. (756) Apollo 14's parachutes have already
opened, it's been sighted by the recovery fleet, so the last
crucial moments of the flight of Apollo 14 are almost over. (757)
And so far everything has gone beautifully without a hitch. (758)
Splashdown is in the mid Pacific south of Samoa, and southeast of
the Fiji Islands. (759) The weather is good, some low clouds, but
this hasn't obstructed already a perfect sighting of the
spacecraft. (760) And it's going to splash down in waves of about
four feet, but there's absolutely nobody thinks there's going to
be any difficulty at all about the recovery. (761) As I say,
everything's so far gone without a hitch, the spacecraft hurtled
through the earth's heat barrier about ten minutes ago and
travelling at something like 25000 miles an hour. (762) Then
came, as always at this stage in these missions, those
heart-stopping moments as the heat severed communications between
the spacecraft and ground control for just over three minutes.
(763) But then the spacecraft was picked up again, everybody
breathed a sigh of relief, there was a cheer from the men in the
control centre in Houston, and then came in quick succession
first the opening of the drogue stabilizing parachute and then
the main chutes to break the craft and drop it into the sea.
(764) And that's what's happening now. (765) In a moment it's all
going to be over, we're now waiting for the spacecraft to drop
down. (766) So let's pick up the voice of the American -, voice
of the American commentator who is aboard the recovery ship, the
New Orleans. (767) As everybody now is watching the splashdown of
Apollo 14.


AC: ... (768) Apollo 14 drifting to its splashdown point here in
the South Pacific. (769) Five, four, three, two, one. (770)
Partially obscured by the clouds now out again, the Apollo 14
command module as it's just a few hundred feet above its
splashdown point here in the South Pacific, the primary recovery
ship, USS New Orleans, steaming towards that splashdown point,
the five rescue and recovery helicopters moving in from their
deployed position, into the area of the splashdown where they'll
maintain about 500 feet above the Apollo 14 command module. (771)
The crew on board the Apollo 14 command module reports everyone
in fine condition. (772) Shepard, Roosa and Mitchell now are
waiting for that splashdown of the Apollo 14 command module,
which should come in just a few moments now.

L:   (773) 30 seconds to splashdown. (774) 30 seconds to
splashdown. 

AC:  ... (775) one of the rescue helicopters we can see from this
distance circling the area. (776) Very shortly, there should be a
drop of a couple of smoke bombs, this will give us a little
better pinpoint on the exact location of the command module.
(777) And will also give the ship a better sighting on which the
position is [garbled] some fifteen hundred yards away from that
command module. (778) That is the point I [wish the ship will
stay], the primary recovery ship, USS New Orleans, while the
swimmers dropped into the South Pacific Sea, to attach a
floatation collar, to put up the swim raft, swim raft, and then
around the Apollo 14 astronauts to be pulled in to their recovery
helicopter, and then brought back to the landing-deck, and
finally the hangar-deck and the mobile quarantine facility here
on board the USS New Orleans.

(779) Five, four, three, two, one, splashdown for the Apollo 14
astronauts here on the recovery zone ...

[0209 22:04]

L:   (780) Yes, and Apollo 14 as you've heard from the
commentators aboard the recovery ship New Orleans there has
splashed down and it was one of the most perfect splashdowns of
this Apollo mission. (781) Everything was clearly recorded from
the moment that it got into the recovery area, there was never
any hesitation or any problems at the moment. (782) It's landed
only a few miles from the recovery ship, the New Orleans. (783)
So that's the news tonight. (784) The helicopter's already
overhead, and in a minute the swimmers will be going down to put
the floatation collar round the Apollo 14 spacecraft, open the
hatches and see that all is well with the astronauts. (785) But
Apollo 14 has splashed down, there don't appear to be any
difficulties at all, Apollo 14 safely home.

(786) And that's it from Larry Hotson in the Apollo Studio, back
now to the news studio.


(787) INTERVIEW WITH DALE MILES (REGINALD TURNILL)

X:   ... (788) given up plans for landing astronauts near the
dramatic crater Tycho in the south.

M:   (789) Yes, Tycho is very far off the equator and it does
take more energy to go to both sites. (790) And a trail-off was
the question of whether we carried a few instruments to a very
far north or south site as opposed to carrying a very large
number of instruments or vehicles like the rover to sites closer
to the middle of the moon, and if you've never been to a new
country, exploration in one site may be just as fine as
exploration in another. (791) It's turned out that there're many
exciting sites close to the equator.

R:   (792) One of the things that has disappointed me, though, is
that one would have liked to see you attempt a manned landing on
the back of the moon.

M:   (793) Well, we always like to keep in touch. (794) Some day
we can probably go to a condition where we have satellites,
communication satellites around the moon, in which case we can
probably land on the back side, but at this stage of the game
we'll leave the back side of the moon to the next generation of
manned operations.

R:   (795) But Apollo 15 is putting a satellite out, placing a
satellite into lunar orbit, this wouldn't have done for
communication with men on the back side?

M:   (796) Not for communication. (797) That particular device is
a long-term scientific satellite to leave in orbit around the
moon. (798) We just, frankly, consider the risks of operating on
the back side of the moon a little too much at this stage of our,
our understanding of a lunar operation.

R:   (799) There are many rumours here that Apollo 17 might go
the way of Apollo 18, 19, and 20, and get cancelled. (800) How do
you feel about that?

M:   (801) I don't think that'll happen. (802) I think that the,
we've had our wrestling matches with our own budget people, and
we believe that the Apollo 17 is a very solid mission in our
stable(?) flights. (803) There is so much coming out of our last
flight in terms of new experiments that the scientific community
is backing us just 100 per cent for that flight. (804) We have
the opportunity on Apollo 17 to fly two new and very exciting
experiments, one is a lunar sounder, which is a low frequency
radar that will allow us to do a deep penetration of the surface
of the moon to better understand the formation of the upper crust
of the moon itself. (805) And another is a gravimeterary
experiment, which may show that there are - is a waveform to
gravity as there is in light and electricity. (806) And if this
is the case, we'll be on a whole new track of knowledge of the
understanding of the solar system and of the earth.

R:   (807) Do you think these comparatively few moon landings
will have told you most of what we can learn about the moon?

M:   (808) I'm sure that's not true. (809) I'm sure that we will
learn in, in increasing amounts from these additional three
flights. (810) We'll have large -, longer stay times, we're gonna
double the stay time on the moon, for example, on the next
operation, we'll have much more experiments, we'll set up a
network of experiments on the surface of the moon, we will have
samples on various sites to give us, I think, tremendous
knowledge about the moon, and because of its original condition,
we'll have an understanding of the earth that's much greater than
we've ever had before. (811) But I really think it's only the
beginning, I think that like any new area where we begin to learn
at a great rate, I think that there will be a great interest and,
and in fact a great need to go back to the moon again.

R:   (812) Do you feel, like I do, that far from having solved
the problem of the origin of the solar system we're as far off as
ever from knowing how it began?

M:   (813) I think we probably are starting to understand it, but
as you say, it's -  we're far from understanding the origin of
the solar system and the universe.

X:   (814) Dale Miles of the United States Space Agency was
speaking to Reginald Turnill in Houston.


(815) And now for the very latest news about the astronauts over
to the Apollo Studio and Larry Hotson.

L:   (816) Yes, and as you've heard Apollo 14's splashed down in
the mid-Pacific at five past ten tonight. (817) And just a few
minutes ago the hatches of Apollo 14 were opened, and out jumped
the crew Shepard, Mitchell and Roosa into the life boats, which
are - inflatable life rafts which had been brought alongside by
the rescue swimmers. (818) And since that time a helicopter
overhead has lowered the safety net and Stuart Roosa was the
first man to get into it and he is now being whisked aboard.
(819) The main recovery ship, the New Orleans, will be joined
within the next ten minutes by Mitchell and Shepard, they've
reported that they are perfectly well, they had no nausea, no sea
sickness, so Apollo 14 is successfully splashed down, and the
astronauts reporting that they're well will soon be aboard the
recovery ship, the New Orleans. (820) And that's the latest news
from the Apollo Studio for the moment, so back to the World
Tonight.

[0209 22:40]

-----------------------------



TRANSKRIPTIONSGESCHICHTE
                                                            
1971: 
        Erste Transkription


März 1994:

Durchsicht des transkribierten Texts und Ergänzungs- sowie Verbesserungsvorschläge durch:

        Christina Frank, Andrea Roitner, Marc Gausmann, Ulrike
        Jaros, Heike Krieg, Stephanie Kux, Andrea Lang und
        insbesondere Marion Rippberger und Annegret Göhringer

April 2009:
        
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